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Developing narrative assessment: a list of resources

The resources listed in this appendix include readings that informed the project team’s thinking about writing learning stories, the exemplars, and Narrative assessment: a guide for teachers. Some of the resource listings are annotated with further suggestions to help the reader.

The resources are loosely grouped under the following topics:

  • Working in partnerships (including with parents and with other educators), IEPs, and curriculum adaptation
  • Supporting Māori learners and their whānau
  • The key competencies in The New Zealand Curriculum
  • The learning areas in The New Zealand Curriculum
  • The impacts and consequences of assessment
  • Ways of thinking about disability.

Many of the exemplars also suggest resources that helped the writer(s) of that exemplar. Additional texts cited in the Narrative assessment: a guide for teachers are referenced in the formal reference section to the guide.


Photos of children undertaking different activities


Working in partnerships, IEPs, and curriculum adaptation

Education Review Office (2006). Choosing a School for a Five Year Old. Wellington: Education Review Office.
www.ero.govt.nz

Fraser, D., Moltzen, R., and Ryba, K., eds (2005). Learners with Special Needs in Aotearoa New Zealand, 3rd ed. Palmerston North: Dunmore.

Lepper, C., Williamson, D., and Cullen, J. (2003). “Professional Development to Support Collaborative Assessment”. Early Education, vol. 33, pp. 19–28.

This study describes the development of a learning community of teachers, parents, psychologists, and other professionals working as a transdisciplinary team. The team used learning stories with young disabled children. The participants reported that they felt empowered and appreciated the strengthening of relationships.


Ministry of Education (2002). Kia Tūtangata Ai Supporting Learning: An Introductory Resource for Teacher Aides/Kaiāwhina Supporting Teachers of Students with Special Education Needs. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

www.minedu.govt.nz/educationSectors/SpecialEducation/PublicationsAndResources/
KiaTutangataAiSupportingLearning.aspx

Ministry of Education (2003). The Home-School Partnership Programme. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2007). Individual Education Programme (IEP) Guidelines.
www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?ID=7359

This resource includes descriptions and examples of curriculum adaptations.


Ministry of Education (2007). A Guide for Parents of Children with Special Education Needs who are Moving from Early Childhood Education to School. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
www.minedu.govt.nz/educationSectors/SpecialEducation/ServicesAndFunding/GoingToSchool/Starting_school.aspx

Ministry of Education (2008). Working with English Language Learners: A Handbook for Teacher Aides and Bilingual Tutors. Wellington: Ministry of Education

www.minedu.govt.nz/educationSectors/Schools/SchoolOperations/EnglishForSpeakersOfOtherLanguages/
WorkingWithEnglishLanguageLearners.aspx

Thorburn, J. (1997). Including Everyone: Teaching Students with Special Needs in Regular Classrooms. Christchurch: Allegro.

Thorburn, J. (2004). The Inclusion Toolkit: Practical Guidelines for Teachers with Special Needs Students. Christchurch: User Friendly Resource Enterprises.


Supporting Māori learners and their whānau

Bevan-Brown, J. (2000). “A Cultural Audit for Teachers: Looking Out for Māori Learners with Special Needs”. Set, no. 1. Wellington: NZCER.

Bevan-Brown, J. (2003). The Cultural Self-review: Providing Culturally Effective, Inclusive Education for Māori Learners. Wellington: NZCER.

Jill Bevan-Brown (2003, page 1) notes that:

Because learning is an interactive, social, contextualised process, to achieve optimum learning a child’s educational environment needs to be culturally compatible with their home environment. Children’s learning is maximised when educational experiences:

  • incorporate cultural content
  • reflect cultural values, attitudes and practices
  • utilise culturally preferred ways of learning
  • include culturally appropriate support.

These references provide support for teachers and advisors to create learning opportunities and write learning stories that reflect the educational experiences that Bevan-Brown describes.


Bishop, R., Berryman, M., Powell, A., and Teddy, L. (2007). Te Kōtahitanga: Improving the Educational Achievement of Māori Students in Mainstream Education: Phase 2: Towards a Whole School Approach. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/9977/9904

Ministry of Education (2007). Te Mana Kōrero: Relationships for Learning 3. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

One of a series of three DVD professional development packages, focusing particularly on the need to build and sustain strong, effective, and mutually respectful school and family/whānau/ community links if Māori student achievement levels are to be raised.


Online resources

TeamUp at www.teamup.co.nz


The key competencies in The New Zealand Curriculum

Carr, M. (2006). Dimensions of Strength for Key Competencies. Hamilton: University of Waikato.

Hipkins, R. (2005). “Thinking about the Key Competencies in the Light of the Intention to Foster Lifelong Learning”. Set, no. 3, pp. 36–38. Wellington: NZCER.

James, S. (2005). “Case Study Six: Planning and Self Assessment in a New Entrant Classroom”. In M. Carr and S. Peters (eds), Te Whāriki and Links to the New Zealand Curriculum Projects (pp.127–142). Hamilton: University of Waikato.

An example of how one new-entrant teacher has unpacked the key competencies to support her planning and to involve children in self-assessment.


Peters, S. (2005). “Making Links between Learning in Early Childhood Education and School Using the ‘Key Competencies’ Framework”. Teachers and Curriculum,
vol. 8, pp. 9–15.

This article describes how schools are exploring the key competencies.


Tringham, K. (2008). “Putting the Fizz into Learning”. Tukutuku Kōrero, 2 April, pp. 9–12.

This short article describes how secondary science teachers have focused on co-operative skills to improve students’ participation and learning. Is this an example of developing key competencies in the context of a learning area?


The learning areas in The New Zealand Curriculum

Bellanca, J. A. (1990). The Cooperative Think Tank: Graphic Organizers to Teach Thinking in Cooperative Classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Bellanca, J. A. (1992). The Cooperative Think Tank II: Graphic Organizers to Teach Thinking in Cooperative Classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Ministry of Education (2001). Exploring the Visual Arts in Years 1–6: Painting, Printmaking, and Sculpture (three titles). Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2002). Exploring the Visual Arts in Years 1–6: Fabric and Fibre. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2003). Effective Literacy Practice in Years 1 to 4. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2004). He Wakahuia Toi Māori: Māori Visual Culture in Visual Arts Education: Years 7–10. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2007). He Papahuia Toi Māori: Māori Visual Culture in Visual Arts Education: Years 1–6. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2008). The New Zealand Curriculum for English-medium Teaching and Learning in Years 1–13. Wellington: Learning Media. See The Arts (pp. 20–21).

McGrath, H. and Francey, S. (2005). Friendly Kids, Friendly Classrooms, Teaching Social Skills & Confidence in the Classroom. Melbourne, Australia: Pearson Education.

Schroeder, A. S. (1998). Socially Speaking: A Pragmatic Social Skills Programme for Pupils with Mild to Moderate Learning Disabilities. Wisbech, England: LDA.

Schroeder, A. S. (2001). Time to Talk: A Programme to Develop Oral and Social Interaction Skills for Reception and Key Stage One. Wisbech, England: LDA.

Schroeder, A. S. (2008). The Friendship Formula: Social Skills Programme for 8+ Years. Wisbech, England: LDA.

Online resources

Developing Fundamental Movement Skills. www.sparc.org.nz/education/fundamental-skills

Inclusive learning technologies www.spectronics.co.nz

This site describes a number of communication strategies and supports for learners, including the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). See also the PECS website at www.pecsaustralia.com


Makaton Vocabulary Development Project www.makaton.org.nz

Makaton is a communication programme especially designed to help children and adults with communication and learning difficulties to better understand other people’s speech and to develop their own communication skills.


Swimming New Zealand www.swimmingnz.org.nz/education

Te Kotahitanga www.tekotahitanga.org.nz/moodle

Te Kotahitanga is a collaborative response to the rising problem of underachievement among Māori students in mainstream schools. The online community has been set up to support those working as part of Te Kotahitanga in New Zealand schools. Users need to be registered to access this site.


The impacts and consequences of assessment

Cowie, B. and Carr, M. (2003). “The Consequences of Sociocultural Assessment in Early Childhood Settings: Community, Competence and Continuity”. In A. Anning, J. Cullen, and M. Fleer (eds), Early Childhood Education: Society and Culture: Culture and Society (pp. 95–106). London: Sage.

Dunn, L. (2004). “Developmental Assessment and Learning Stories in Inclusive Early Intervention Programmes: Two Constructs in One Context”. New Zealand Research in Early Childhood Education, vol. 7, pp. 119–131.

Harlen, W. (2006). “The Role of Assessment in Developing Motivation for Learning”. In J. Gardner (ed.), Assessment and Learning (pp. 61–80). London: Sage.

Lee, W., Hatherly, A., and Ramsey, K. (2002). “Using ICT to Document Children’s Learning”. Early Childhood Folio, vol. 6, pp. 10–16.

Williamson, D., Cullen, J., and Lepper, C. (2006). “From Checklists to Narratives in Special Education”. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 31 no. 3, pp. 20–30.

This brief report describes what a team of educators learned about using narrative assessment and how this approach supports educators in avoiding a deficit approach to learners.


Ways of thinking about disability

Fraser, D., Moltzen, R., and Ryba, K., eds (2005). Learners with Special Needs in Aotearoa New Zealand, 3rd ed. Palmerston North: Dunmore.

Ministry of Health (2001). The New Zealand Disability Strategy: Making a World of Difference: Whakanui Oranga. Wellington: Ministry of Health.


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